3D bar chart on the globe using three.js

When people need to present per-country data such as GDP, they usually resort to color-coded maps or simple bar charts. In 3D, you could combine these two and end up with something like this:

globe bar chartThis is very obvious idea, yet I had no time to try it until last November. It worked, and I went on with my life, leaving the code to collect the dust. Then I saw Kaspersky cyberthreat map this March, which used extruded country shapes to support zooming. This reminded me this gold I was sitting on, and now I was finally able to fork out some time to undust it and push to github.


Basically, you take 2D country shapes and tessellate it on the sphere surface, then extrude towards the sphere center. You end up with cone-shaped meshes that you can then scale to build this kind of geo- bar chart. The catch is that corresponding three.js scene weighs much more than its 2D source data (ObjectExporter blows 100 KB of GeoJSON up to many MBs). Much of this extra weight comes in the form of useless digits in vertex data, but even with that removed there is extra dimension, data duplication and so on. To work around this issue you have to build 3D geometry from tessellated 2D data on the fly – this puts 3D data size at ~150% of 2D. Still sucks, if compared to TopoJSON, but tolerable. Corresponding code looks like

for (var name in data) {
    geometry = new Map3DGeometry (data[name], innerRadius);
    globe.add (data[name].mesh = new THREE.Mesh (geometry, material));

Map3DGeometry class and the tool to create the data are now at github.


Following documents the problems you would encounter if you did it yourself, so you may probably skip it. My first idea was to use ear clipping or similar method on country borders. In fact, three.js has such a method built in itself. This is how the result would look like:


You can see it does not look that nice with large countries. To fix this shit you need to generate lots of vertices uniformly distributed on the sphere and include them in tessellation. This requires constrained Delaunay library such as poly2tri.

My first attempt using poly2tri looked like this:


A little bit nicer, but check out those vertical edges. Why does “Delaunay” tessellation prefer clearly longer vertical edges to shorter horizontal ones? The answer is: bad choice of coordinates. So this time I had to re-do the tesselation in Mercator coordinates, and the result now was like this:


Still not perfect, but much better. The only serious problem now was with long border lines such as between Canada and USA:


I had to split these into several edges to make it more arc-like in 3D, and at the same time wiggle the vertices around to keep poly2tri happy, as it does not handle collinear edges at all.

Well, that’s it. If you’re reading this, you can imagine how many hours I have just saved you, so be nice and say “thanks” :)

9 Responses to “3D bar chart on the globe using three.js”

  1. 1 thiagoponte April 20, 2014 at 18:49

    I normally don’t deal with data to graphics, but i ever need it, i’ll follow your advices.

  2. 3 Jon November 25, 2015 at 22:04

    Thanks for this! I had the same idea, but no idea how to realize it. Used a modified version for one of my school projects.

  3. 4 rstar February 2, 2016 at 00:56

    This is amazing!! Awesome job!
    Thanks for sharing.

  4. 5 Alain L'Hostis (@Alain_LHostis) September 17, 2016 at 15:47

    fighting for weeks, month on a similar issue, before I read this!! Will try to introduce it in my project

  5. 8 Marian Halliday January 28, 2017 at 00:41

    Wow, this is absolutely amazing. Thanks!

  1. 1 Prog.Hu Trackback on June 5, 2014 at 15:20

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Old stuff

April 2014

Oh, btw…

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